About half a year ago Christopher Deckers had a guest spot post on this blog about a non-daemon WebStart thread that prevents JVM from exiting when you’re closing your last Swing window running under the DISPOSE_ON_CLOSE mode. To illustrate the problem with the current implementation of WebStart helper threads, he posted the following excerpt from the AWT threading documentation:
Prior to 1.4, the helper threads were never terminated. Starting with 1.4, the behavior has changed as a result of the fix for 4030718. With the current implementation, AWT terminates all its helper threads allowing the application to exit cleanly when the following three conditions are true:
- There are no displayable AWT or Swing components.
- There are no native events in the native event queue.
- There are no AWT events in java EventQueues.
There is an additional clarification to the last item in the same document:
Make sure that no method of AWT event listeners registered by the application with any AWT or Swing component can run into an infinite loop or hang indefinitely. For example, an AWT listener method triggered by some AWT event can post a new AWT event of the same type to the
EventQueue. The argument is that methods of AWT event listeners are typically executed on helper threads.
So, as long as you don’t post another event from your event handler or hang indefinitely, you should be OK, right? That is not entirely correct, since the current implementation of the last item (at least in Sun’s VM) makes an additional restriction on shutting down the AWT queues in absence of events.
The relevant class in Sun’s VM is sun.awt.AWTAutoShutdown and it has additional logic on top of the official documentation (relevant part is highlighted by me):
The internal AWTAutoShutdown logic secures that the single non-daemon thread is running when AWT is not in ready-to-shutdown state. This blocker thread is to prevent AWT from exiting since the toolkit thread is now daemon and all the event dispatch threads are started only when needed. Once it is detected that AWT is in ready-to-shutdown state this blocker thread waits for a certain timeout and if AWT state doesn’t change during timeout this blocker thread terminates all the event dispatch threads and exits.
In the current implementation this timeout is 1000 ms (or one second). What this effectively means that AWT is not shutdown immediately after disposing the last window in your application and processing all pending events. Instead, it wakes every second, checks for any pending or processed events during the sleep and continues sleeping if there have been any such events.
How can this affect your application? In my case, i have a daemon thread that wakes up every 100ms and synchronizes the visual state of certain components. Since everything UI-related must run on the Event Dispatch Thread, i wrap each iteration loop inside the SwingUtilities.invokeLater (otherwise i run into sporadic deadlocks). As far as AWT is concerned, such an invocation is an event which effectively prevents AWT from shutting down.
Bottom line is that you should be careful with calling SwingUtilities.invokeLater from daemon threads in applications using DISPOSE_ON_CLOSE. Before calling that method you can check that the relevant component is visible and showing. If both are true it means that the window of that component is still not disposed.